Beginning Level

At this step, we can set up a home NAS sharing and managing media and data under the same network.

A NAS(Network Attached Storage) unit is a computer connected to a network
NAS users are able to access to their NAS whenever/wherever they are, and the administrator of the NAS can make it providing more services with help of many various programs.
Most common NAS or home server uses are:

  • Automatic backup of smartphone data
  • Manage and share my data on the internet
  • Streaming videos that I saved
  • Download and manage Torrents on your smartphone
  • Hosting a personal blog

And SSL(Secure Sockets Layer) also can be applied on all of these stuffs for security on the internet.
This guide will walk you through all of the above entries. And it contains full explanation with screenshots to make it easy for anyone to follow.
Even if you don't have a knowledge of Linux and Network, you can start streaming your media, manage/share your data, and manage Torrents, so let's build your own NAS with this guide.


Followings are required to build a NAS with ODROID-HC1:

You can buy a new 2.5inch HDD/SSD or disassemble a external HDD to use as storage of server.
In this guide, we are going to disassemble a external HDD to build a NAS.

  • If you choose the way that disassembling a external HDD, the interface of the HDD itself might be USB instead of SATA. In this case, you cannot install it to ODROID-HC1.
  • It is not recommended to connect the external HDD to USB port on ODROID-HC1. But in the case of ODROID-XU4/XU4Q, you can connect it to USB 3.0 port on them via the power supplied USB 3.0 hub.
  • Buying an external HDD might be cheaper than buying that same HDD.

1. Disassemble external HDD

  • If you willing to disassemble a external HDD that is not in this guide, googling first to find out that the HDD you have can be disassembled well.


The prepared external HDD is Seagate Backup Plus 5TB portable.


It can be disassembled by removing top cover using thin bar inserted to joint.


A 2.5inch HDD is shown after removing top cover. Remove the shock absorber and rubber at the corner and totally remove it.




The HDD totally removed from the case.



After removing the SATA to USB converter in front of the HDD by pulling out,


and then make it arranged to assemble.

2. Assemble ODROID-HC1



As shown above, push the HDD to fit the ODROID-HC1 SATA/power connector.


Combine the HDD and heat shield by using included screw via the hole on the bottom of the heat shield.

3. Connect LAN cable


Connect ODROID-HC1 to the router that works fine.
To support gigabit bandwidth, using CAT.5e and above is recommended.

  • Most of LAN cables are printed its category on the wire.

If you prepared MicroSD card, you can install OMV on ODROID-HC1.

1. Download OMV image

Go to following link to download OMV image.
https://sourceforge.net/projects/openmediavault/files/OMV%204.x%20for%20Single%20Board%20Computers/
At this moment (2018. 7. 29), the latest OMV image file is “OMV_4_Odroid_XU4_HC1_HC2.img.xz”. It might be different from real latest version.
Remember where the file located.

2. Download Etcher

To burn the OMV image to your MicroSD card, a specific image flashing program is required.
Go to link below and download executable Etcher file for your platform.
https://etcher.io/

3. Burn OMV image to MicroSD card

Click “Select image” button and select the downloaded file.
Then, click enabled “Select drive” button and select the MicroSD card you are intending to use. If there's only one connected USB drive, that will be selected as destination MicroSD card automatically.
Lastly, click “Flash!” button to burn OMV image to MicroSD card.

Validation procedure will be performed automatically.

4. Insert MicroSD card into ODROID-HC1 / Plug the power supply


Insert MicroSD card which has OMV image into your ODROID-HC1. After plug an Ethernet connector, then plug the power supply.
Check the status LEDs (red, blue for HC1 operation, green for SATA connection) turn on.
ODROID-HC1 installs the OS by itself. Since there are one and more reboot procedures, do not give any interrupt to ODROID-HC1 and just wait 5~10 minutes to setup.

1. Find out ODROID-HC1's IP address

You have to know the IP address ODROID-HC1 has to access. IP address means that the unique address on the network.
As accessing to the ODROID-HC1's IP address via a internet browser, you can see the Open Media Vault admin website.

To find out the IP address easily, you need to install Angry IP Scanner program. Go to below link and download installation file for your platform.
http://angryip.org/download
When you execute the program, the following screen appears.

Click “Start” button to scan all the used IP addresses on the network you are in.

Look for a list of blue light. Among them, the device called “odroidxu4” as hostname is your ODROID-HC1. Remember the device's IP address.

2. Access to OMV on ODROID-HC1

Open a internet browser, and enter ODROID-HC1's IP address.
And then the login page appears like below.

The default username and password is admin / openmediavault.
After login, you can see the dashboard screen like below.

  • Every time when you save each settings on OMV Web UI, the Yellow Alert will be appeared with apply confirmation message. If you revert, the saved settings are ignored.

1. General settings

You can see the OMV menu at the left side. Click “System” - “General Settings”.

And type 0 into “Session timeout”, then click “Save” button.
In additional, click “Web Administrator Password” to change the password of the website administrator.

2. Update packages

The default packages in OMV image might be out of date. It must be updated with the latest version.
Click “System” - “Update Management”.

If there's no item, click “Check” button to check if there're updated packages.
Check all items and click “Upgrade” button to update all of the packages.

Once all of the packages are updated successfully, click “menu” button at the right top of the screen and reboot your ODROID-HC1 to take effect.

3. Mount HDD

  • You should format your HDD to change file system to “ext4”. If it isn't newer or involves the data, backup the files to other place first.
  • If the HDD you have already formatted to “ext4”, the format procedure is not needed and you can use it immediately. But since it is not recommended by OMV, it is recommended that the HDD will be formatted again on OMV Web GUI.
  • If ODROID-HC1 gives you no response during the operation associated with the HDD, then you can try it again after doing following “Disable UAS” document.

You might equip the 2.5 inch HDD to your ODROID-HC1. Even if it was equipped well, you will not be able to do anything unless you enable it on the OMV.
To check if that was equipped normally, click “Storage” - “Physical Disks” on OMV.

You did well if there is “/dev/sda” with another “dev/mmcblk0” as above screenshot.
Then to use this HDD device, click “Storage” - “File Systems” on OMV.

There's no item excepts “/dev/mmcblk0”. Click “Create” button to mount to use after creating new file system to the HDD.

Enter the name that you want into “Label”, and set to “EXT4” as your “File System” then click “OK” button.

The Format message should be appeared. It might takes a lot of time so that you should wait more than 10 minutes.
Once the process is complete, you can see the new device named “/dev/sda1”.
Click “Mount” button after clicking new “/dev/sda1” device.

Now you can use your new HDD as well.

4. Add users

  • The users who are added here is for the NAS services. You can't login with it to terminal. To Access via SSH with these users, you can use following document.

There's no user on OMV yet. As we can use admin account to login to OMV admin website, but this account is only for OMV management, not for NAS services. So that you have to add new user into OMV.
Click “Access Right Management” - “User” on OMV. And click “Add” button.

There are many items that can be setup, but you will set only “Name” and “Password” for now. Without any changes except these two things, click “Save” button to save settings.

5. Add shared folders

  • This guide sets the all of the used shared folders to “/” which is root path of the HDD, uses that shared folder only.
  • You can create the shared folders as you need and apply them to each service as you need.
  • Since the permissions can be different on each shared folders, so that the data you have are protected/managed/shared very well.

The place where OMV stores/manages data is called a “Shared folder”. The “shared folder” is defined as the path inside of the specific file system.
If you are unfamiliar with the path, think of that path “/” as the outermost of the 2.5 inch HDD. If there is “Video” folder at the “/”, that can be defined “/Video” as path. If you willing to use that “Video” folder for Samba or FTP, you should set that “/Video” as shared folder for them. ??
Click “Access Rights Management” - “Shared Folders” on OMV and click “Add” button.

Here, set your device name as the “Device”, set the path that is the outermost of the HDD as the “Path”, enter the name you want into the “Name” and click “Save” button to save.
If you didn't specify the name when you added the file system, you should select the “/dev/sda” item as the “Device”.

And click the new added item on the list of the shared folders, click “Privileges” button.

Check the permission of “Read/Write” for the new added user, and click “Save” button to save.
Also, click the ACL button.

Setting up for the “ACL” is equal to the “Privileges”.Check the permission “Read/Write” for the new added user, and click “Apply” button.
Now you can use the outermost path(”/”) of the HDD for the services such as Samba and FTP.

You can manage your data easily using Samba.

1. Enable Samba

Click “Services” - “SMB/CIFS” on OMV.

Simply check “Enable” option and save.
And you have to set the shared folders to use for Samba. Click “Shares” tab and click “Add” button.

Once the “Add share” windows appeared, set the shared folder you created before that points the outermost of the HDD as “Shared folder”.
And click “Save” button to save.

2. File management

Register network drive (Windows)

Even if you enabled Samba but you might don't know how to use it.
Once if you use Windows, simply you can register the HDD of the NAS as the drive which looks like the “C Drive” on your “This PC”.

Open “This PC”, and click “Map network drive”.

To find your ODROID NAS explicitly, enter “{ODROID IP}“ into “Folder”.
Then click “Browse…“ button.

Your ODROID NAS is selected on the window, and you can see the “Shared folder” you set. Double-click to select the item.

Enter the NAS user account you added before.
After authentication, added shared folder appears on the browse window. Click “OK” button after clicking newly appeared shared folder.

Now you can manage your HDD of the NAS easily.

ES File Explorer (Android)

You can start streaming your media or manage your files using ES File Explorer on the Android devices.

nPlayer (Android, iOS)

You can start streaming your media using nPlayer on the Android and iOS devices.

Reference. Samba speed measurement

It was performed by creating 2GB dummy file.

Upload


Download


  • Security of FTP service is very vulnerable. It is recommended that you should use it on your unimportant data.
  • You can improve security of the FTP service by applying the SSL. Also, the SSL makes you can access to FTP service using domain address. The Advanced level deals with it.

You can manage the data from the outside via FTP service. Besides, since the FTP service is fast and makes you access from the outside, it is used as the way for streaming your media as well.

1. Enable FTP

Click the OMV “Services” - “FTP menu.

Check “Enable” option in “General settings”.

And check “Passive FTP option in “Advanced settings”.
After save, go to “Shares” tab and click “Add” button. As you did in setting up for Samba, add the outermost path(”/”) as the shared folder and save.

2. File management

There're various ways to manage your files using FTP such as:

Add Network Location (Windows)

If you are on Windows, you can register the FTP server of the NAS to your windows explorer.

FileZilla (Windows, Mac OS, Linux)

FileZilla is very famous FTP client program. It makes you to setting up your FTP server more detail.

RaiDrive (Windows)

RaiDrive is free software that makes cloud storage such as FTP or WebDAV a drive into Windows Explorer like “C Drive”.
NetDrive is paid for, so it is recommended to use RaiDrive for those who are burdened.

ES File Explorer (Android)

You can start streaming your media or manage your files using ES File Explorer on the Android devices.

nPlayer (Android, iOS)

You can start streaming your media using nPlayer on the Android and iOS devices.

Reference. FTP speed measurement

It was performed by creating 2GB dummy file.
FileZilla is used for the test.

Upload

Download

Unlike Samba, FTP, WebDAV is the service that allows you manage files and start stream media using Web protocols.
Since it's a complete web-based service, it is easy to apply SSL and is excellent in security.
And unlike FTP, it is intended for web distributed authoring and version control, so it is possible to edit real time documents. For FTP, you need to upload the completed files to the server as a whole file after editing the document, but it is not necessary for WebDAV, and it also protects you from editing by others when your are editing.
However, there's disadvantage in that it uses a web server so that there is a limit to the maximum transmission capacity for a single file.

1. Install WebDAV

WebDAV isn't on OMV's menu. You must install it directly with the OMV plugin.
Click the OMV “System” - “Plugins” menu.
And when you search for WebDAV, there will be only one entry in the list.

Click the appropriate item and click “Install” button to install.

2. Enable WebDAV

When the page is refreshed, there'll be an OMV “Services” - ”WebDAV menu. Click that menu.
Set “Shared Folder”, and write “1954” in “Filesize upload limit(MiB)“. The process of setting the maximum transfer size of a single file to 2GB. And check “Enable” option and save.

However you will see the warning “The user webdav is missing write permission on this directory”. To solve this problem, go to the OMV “Access Right Management” menu.
Click the shared folder you have set up in WebDAV and click ACL button.

In the “User/Group permissions” section, scroll down to find “webdav”, “webdav-users” and give “Read/Write” permission to them.
And then in the “Extra options” section, check “Recursively” and click “Apply”.
If you go back to OMV “Services” - ”WebDAV menu, you can see the disappearing warning.
To access to WebDAV, you need to modify your user account.
Go to OMV “Access Right Management” - “Users” menu.
Click the user intended to accessing WebDAV, click “Edit” button.

Go to “Group” tab, and check “webdav-users” and click “Save” button.
Now, let's access to WebDAV by clicking the “Show” button in the OMV “Services” - ”WebDAV menu.

3. File management

Beyond the Web, there are many ways to manage files through WebDAV such as:

Add Network Location (Windows)

If you are on Windows, you can register the FTP server of the NAS to your windows explorer.

RaiDrive (Windows)

RaiDrive is free software that makes cloud storage such as FTP or WebDAV a drive into Windows Explorer like “C Drive”.
NetDrive is paid for, so it is recommended to use RaiDrive for those who are burdened.

ES File Explorer (Android)

You can start streaming your media or manage your files using ES File Explorer on the Android devices.

nPlayer (Android, iOS)

You can start streaming your media using nPlayer on the Android and iOS devices.

  • Assume that you have some knowledge of Torrent.
  • Excessive use of Torrents with high network traffic causes degrading NAS performance and shorten the HDD's lifespan.

Transmission, a BitTorrent client, on NAS allows you to receive and share your data with Torrents all day long.

1. Install Transmission

Transmission is not on OMV's menu. You need to install it directly with the OMV plugin.
Click OMV “System” - “Plugins” menu.
And if you search for Transmission, there will be only one entry in the list.

Click that item and click “Install” button to install.

2. Enable Transmission

  • When you finish the setting up, you can access to the Transmission RTC through the web browser address bar with the port number.

When the page is refreshed, there will be an “Services” - ”BitTorrent menu. Click that menu.
Click “Files and Locations” tab.
In “Location”, set all shared folders of “Download”, “Incomplete”, “Watch” as shared folder for ”/”. Then type “complete”, “incomplete”, “watch” in the directory entry. You can use another name of course.

A warning about the permissions appears here. Before doing to solve, go to “Settings” tab and check “Enable” option first and save.

Then go to the “RPC” tab and check “Enable”. If you necessary, enter your “Authentication” information and save.

Now go to the OMV “Access Right Management” - “Shared Folders” menu to get rid of the warning and use Transmission properly.
Click the ACL button for the shared folder used by Transmission.

And check “Read/Write” of both two “debian-transmission” items, then check “Recursively” option in “Extra options” and click “Apply” button.
Go back to OMV “Services” - BitTorrent menu and go to “Files and Locations” tab to check if there is a warning.
If there isn't, go to “RPC” tab and click “Show” button. The Transmission Web GUI will appear.

3. Transmission management on Android

You can easily download files by managing torrents on your smartphone.

Transmission Remote

Transmission Remote app for Android. With simple server setup, you can do the same thing you did on your computer.